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Armed forces in World War Two - Russia


Written by Sakhal

Russia 1941 - Army

Individual weapons - Pistols and revolvers: Pistols Tokarev TT 1930 and TT 1933 caliber 7.62 mm, TT 34 caliber 5.56 mm, revolver Nagant 1895 caliber 7.62 mm
Individual weapons - Rifles: Mosin Nagant Model 1891, 1891/1930, 1910, 1939, all of caliber 7.62 mm
Individual weapons - Hand bombs: Model 1941/30 (defensive and offensive), Model 1933 F1 (defensive), VGD 1930 (for rifle), VGPS 1941 (antitank for rifle), RPG 40 (antitank)

Automatic weapons - Submachine guns: PPD 1934/38, PPD 1940, PPSh 1941, all of caliber 7.62 mm
Automatic weapons - Automatic and semiautomatic rifles: SVT 1938, SVT 1940 long and SVT 1940 short, all semiautomatic of caliber 7.62 mm; AVS 1936 and AVS 1940, automatic of caliber 7.62 mm
Automatic weapons - Machine guns: PM 1910, DP 1928, DT 1929 (a), DS 1939, ShKAS (b), all of caliber 7.62 mm; DShK and UB (b) caliber 12.7 mm

Mortars: Of 37 mm, models 38, 39, 40 and 41, all of caliber 50 mm, BM 82 of 82 mm, models 36, 37 and 41, PM 120 of 120 mm

Antitank weapons - Light: Models 1938 and 1938 modified, caliber 12.7 mm, models PTRS 1941 and PTRD 1941, caliber 14.5 mm
Antitank weapons - Heavy: Cannons of 57 mm and 76.2 mm
Antitank weapons - Motorized: SU-37 of 37 mm, SU-45 of 45 mm, SU-57 of 57 mm, SU-8 of 76 mm, SU-5-1 of 76.2 mm

Cannons: Howitzers of 122 mm, 152 mm, 203 mm and 305 mm; cannons of 45 mm (d), 57 mm(d), 75 mm(c), 76 mm, 76.2 mm, 76.2 mm(d), 85 mm(c), 122 mm, 130 mm and 152 mm; rocket launchers BM8 and BM13 of 132 mm (e)

Armored vehicles - Light: T-27 of 1.5 t, T-26 of 9 t, OT-130 and OT-133 of 8.5 t (f), T-46 of 9.25 t, T-37 of 3.1 t (g), T-38 of 2.9 t (g), T-41 of 3.2 t (g), T-50 of 12 t
Armored vehicles - Medium: BT-2 of 9.9 t, BT-3 and BT-4 of 9.2 t, BT-5 of 10.4 t, BT-7 of 12.5 t, T-28 of 26.8 t, T-32 of 17.2 t, T-34/76A of 26.3 t, T-34/76B of 28 t
Armored vehicles - Heavy: T-32 of 40.6 t, T-35 of 40.8 t, KV-1 of 43.5 t, KV-2A of 52 t, KV-2B of 51.7 t
Armored vehicles - Motorized artillery: SU-5-2 of 122 mm (howitzer), SU-5-3 of 122 mm (cannon), SU-6 of 152 mm, SU-14-Br2 of 152 mm, SU-100-Y of 130 mm

Chemical weapons - Flamethrowers: OT 26, OT 130, OT 133

(a) Type for armored vehicles.
(b) Type for aircraft.
(c) Antiaircraft.
(d) Antitank.
(e) Motorized heavy rocket launcher.
(f) Flamethrower.
(g) Amphibious.


Russia 1941 - Navy

Battleships: Oktiabrskaja Revolutsija (a) and Parizhskaja Kommuna (b) of 26690 t, Marat (c) of 26170 t

Cruisers: 1 Barrikada class (d) of 9655 t, 1 Kirov class of 8800 t, 1 Maksim Gorky class of 8972 t, 1 Krasnij Kavkaz class (e) of 8030 t, 1 Krasnij Krim class (e) and 1 Chervonaja Ukraina class (e) of 6937 t, 1 Komintern class (h) of 6338 t, 1 Marti class (i) of 5664 t, 1 Aurora class (j) of 5622 t, 1 25 Oktiabrja class (m), 1 Tashkent class (n) of 3200 t, 1 Baku class of 2582 t

Destroyers: 2 Storozhevoj class of 2246 t, 2 Karl Marx class of 2200 t, 18 Bodry class of 2039 t, 1 Yacov Sverdlov class of 1801 t, 4 Dzerzinski class (o) of 1700 t, 3 Karl Liebknecht class (p) of 1620 t, 5 Artem class (q) of 1800 t, 1 Frunze class of 1300 t

Torpedo boats: 6 Taifun class of 580 t, 12 Shtorm class of 560 t, 2 Smeul class (ex Romanian) (r) of 262 t, 4 Dersky class (ex Bulgarian) (s) of 97 t

Gunboats: 14 units of recent construction plus 94 motor-gunboats of several types, including 9 obsolete units

Submarines: 157 coastal units of the classes AG, Shch (series III, V, V bis 1, V bis 2, X and X bis), M (series VI, VI bis, XII and XII bis), 2 ex Estonian and 2 ex Lithuanian; 57 oceanic units of the classes L55 (ex British), D (series I), L (series II, XI, and XIII), P (series IV), S and K; all for a total of 214 units

(a) Ex Gangut, in service in 1915 and modernized in 1934.
(b) Ex Sebastopol, in service in 1914 and modernized in 1925.
(c) Ex Petropavlovsk, in service in 1915 and modernized in 1931.
(d) Ex Piotr Veliky, ex Kreiser, built in 1872, deposit of mines.
(e) Built in the early 1920s.
(h) Built in 1905, used as school ship.
(i) Built in 1896, minelayer.
(j) Built in 1902, used as school ship.
(m) Built in 1873, minelayer.
(n) Built in Italy and delivered in May 1936.
(o) Built between 1918 and 1925.
(p) Built between 1916 and 1928.
(q) Built between 1915 and 1916.
(r) Built in 1915.
(s) Built in 1905.


Russia 1941 - Aviation

Fighter aircraft: I-15 (a), I-16 (a), I-17, I-28, MiG-1, MiG-3, LaGG-3

Bomber aircraft: Su-2 (d), Yak-4 (d), Pe-2 (d), SB-2 (e), Il-4 (f) and Pe-8 (f)

Reconnaissance aircraft: Po-2 (b), MBR-2 (c), MDR-6 (c), ARK-3 (c)

Transport aircraft: TB-3 (g), PS-35

(a) Outdated types, operative only in the first months of the war.
(b) Training biplane.
(c) Seaplane.
(d) Assault aircraft.
(e) Mid-range bomber.
(f) Long-range bomber.
(g) Outdated bomber, adapted for transport, used mainly for dropping paratroopers.


russia_armed_forces_1941.png

Armed forces (equipment) of Russia in 1941.

Russia 1943 update - Army

Individual weapons - Hand bombs: RG 1941 (a), RTD 1942 (a), RPG 1943 (b)

Automatic weapons - Submachine guns: PPSh 1943 caliber 7.62 mm
Automatic weapons - Machine guns: SG 1943 caliber 7.62 mm

Mortars: M 1943 of 82 mm and 160 mm

Antitank weapons - Cannons: Model 42 of 45 mm and Model 43 of 57 mm
Antitank weapons - Self-propelled: SU-76 and SU-76M of 76.2 mm, SU-761 of 76.2 mm (c), SU-152 of 152 mm

Cannons: Two models of 76 mm, howitzers of 152 mm

Armored vehicles: Light tanks T-40 of 4.99 t (d), T-50 of 12.54 t, T-60 of 5.21 t, T-70 of 8.21 t; medium tanks T-34/76 in versions C, D and E, all of 31 t, T-43 of 28.11 t; heavy tanks KV-1B of 47.5-48 t (e), KV-1S of 38.55 t, KV-85 of 41.72 t

Chemical weapons - Flamethrowers: ATO 41 and ATO 42

(a) Offensive and defensive.
(b) Antitank.
(c) Obtained by rearming with the 76.2 mm antitank cannon the hulls of the StuG III tank destroyers captured from the German.
(d) Amphibious.
(e) Depending on whether they are of the type with riveted or cast turret.

NOTE: Not included the American materials obtained from the Lend and Lease Law.


Russia 1943 update - Navy

Cruisers: Voroshilov of 11500 t, Molotov, Kalinin and Kaganovich of 2972 t (a)

Destroyers: 1 Ognyevoi class of 2650 t, 16 Storozhevoi class of 2446 t, 11 Bodry class of 2039 t, 1 Opitny class of 1870 t (b)

Gunboats: 6 units obtained from the conversion of mercantile units, and about 100 motor-gunboats of several types and diverse construction

Submarines: 5 L class series XIII bis of 1108/1400 t, 21 M class (19 series XII bis of 205.5/256 t and 2 series XV of 281/351 t), 9 S class (3 series IX and 6 series IX bis, all of 840/1070 t), 6 Shch class series X bis of 590/705 t, 2 K class series XVI of 840/1070 t (c)

(a) Not included units such as the Frunze class which, having been put in shipyard in 1938-40, were not finished before 1949-50.
(b) Not included the 13 ex American units obtained as war support.
(c) Not included the four submarines granted by the Allies, as it cannot be ascertained with precision that they entered service before the 8th September 1943.


Russia 1943 update - Aviation

Fighter aircraft: Yak-1, MiG-5, La-5, Yak-9, La-7

Bomber aircraft: Il-2 (a), Tu-2

(a) Assault aircraft.

russia_armed_forces_1943.png

Armed forces (equipment) of Russia in 1943 (update).

Russia 1945 update - Introduction

The development of the Soviet Armed Forces, in the time span from September 1943 to the end of the war, was influenced mainly by two factors: the theater of operations (of totally terrestrial nature) and the possibility of receiving from the Allies a great amount of supplies of every type. This special situation led military technology to be developed only in certain sectors: for example, in the aeronautical one, where good results were achieved, mainly regarding fighter and strike aircraft, whereas no great importance was ever given to some branches such as that of torpedo bombers. The king sector, however, was that of armored vehicles in every form: assault tanks, escort tanks, tank destroyers and troop carriers. The Navy enjoyed a lesser attention. It is notable that between 1943 and 1945 only one submarine of national construction entered service. The other ships which were in the docks were sabotaged, dynamited or abandoned, to later retake the construction in the years after the conflict. The only units which entered service were, besides several torpedo boats and submarines captured from the Italian and Romanian, some units provided by the Allies, among which a battleship and a cruiser stand out. However, the Soviet military technology did not remain dormant, as it was later seen on the huge increment of military production, which in the postwar would place Russia at the level of the American colossus. Designers and technicians would be able to take advantage of the knowledge acquired from the study of the Allied weapons, and the first results of these investigations (not always carried out beneath the light of the sun) would be seen promptly in the Korean War.

Russia 1945 update - Army

Individual weapons - Rifles: Mosin Nagant Model 1944 caliber 7.62 mm

Automatic weapons - Machine guns: DPM 1944 caliber 7.62 mm, DTM 1944 caliber 7.62 mm (a)

Antitank weapons - Cannons: Model 1944 caliber 100 mm
Antitank weapons - Self-propelled: SU-122 of 122 mm, SU-85 of 85 mm, SU-100 of 100 mm, ISU-122 of 122 mm, ISU 152 of 152 mm

Cannons: M 1944 of 85 mm (b), D 10S M 1944 of 100 mm, M 1944 A 19 of 122 mm

Armored vehicles: SU-37-1 and SU-37-2 of 37 mm (b); light tanks: T-80 of 10.52 t; medium tanks: T-34/85 1 and 2 of 32 t, T-44 of 32 t; heavy tanks: IS 1 (c), IS 2 of 40.81 t, IS 3 of 41.54 t

(a) For tanks.
(b) Antiaircraft.
(c) Initially of 39.91 t and later of 40.36 t due to the replacement of the 85 mm cannon for a 122 mm one.

NOTE: The list of weapons does not include the supplies received from United States and Britain, which provided individual weapons, radio devices, aircraft, tanks and vehicles to the exhaust Red Army. However, it is proper to recognize that, from a certain moment, the Soviet war industry, already without the pressure of an enemy at the gates of Moscow, started to produce in large scale excellent equipment which, along with more rustic but reliable elements, properly tested during the two first years of the war, constituted a war potential which was fearsome even for an army as technologically advanced as the German. It is believed, however, that many arms were integrally copied by the Russian technicians from the already existing Allied equipment. This, of course, would never be admitted, due to the Soviet tendency of attributing to the Russian wit the paternity of all the successfully functional technical applications.


Russia 1945 update - Navy

Battleships: Arkangelsk of 32500 t (a)

Cruisers: Murmansk of 9150 t (b)

Submarines: 1 S class of 840/1070 t (c)

(a) ex British Royal Sovereign, obtained in 1944.
(b) ex American Milwaukee, obtained in 1944.
(c) Launched, but did not enter service until after the war.

NOTE: Not included the units captured nor those obtained from the Allies through the Lend and Lease Law, with exception of the two large units whose origin has been mentioned.


Russia 1945 update - Aviation

Fighter aircraft: Yak-3, MiG-7

Bomber aircraft: Il-10 (a)

(a) Assault aircraft.

NOTE: The list of aeronautical equipment does not include the Allied aircraft which flew with the emblems of the Soviet aviation, such as several B-25 Mitchell or the Bell Airacobra and Kingcobra of American manufacture, or the Hurricane and Spitfire (to mention some examples) of British manufacture.


russia_armed_forces_1945.png

Armed forces (equipment) of Russia in 1945 (update).

Related articles

Armed Forces in World War Two - Britain

Armed Forces in World War Two - Germany

Armed Forces in World War Two - Italy

Armed Forces in World War Two - Japan

Armed Forces in World War Two - Poland and France

Armed Forces in World War Two - United States

Categories: Statistics - World War Two - 20th Century - [General] - [General]

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Website: Military History

Article submitted: 2015-10-11

Article updated: 2020-08-23


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